JavaScript Programming

JavaScript is used on the client-side by over 97% of websites to control web page interactivity.

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JavaScript History

Early to mid-1990s were critical years for the internet, with browser wars raging between Microsoft and Netscape. Netscape Navigator and Microsoft's Internet Explorer were competing head to head. Brandan Eich created a new scripting language in September 1995, which led to the birth of the modern web.

The new scripting language was originally known as Mocha, but it swiftly evolved into LiveScript and, eventually, JavaScript. The original purpose of JavaScript was to turn the web into a full-fledged application platform. However, it took several years for it to be taken seriously as a backend language but quickly grew in popularity on the front end.

JavaScript was created for Netscape 2 and was adopted as the ECMA-262 standard in 1997. Following the public release of JavaScript, the next important step was ECMA standardization. It broadened the language's appeal and gave other potential implementers, such as Microsoft, a say.

The Mozilla foundation continues to develop JavaScript for the Firefox browser. Following Netscape's handover of JavaScript to ECMA, Mozilla's most recent version was 1.8.

What is JavaScript Used For?

JavaScript is a text-based programming language that can be used on both the client and server sides to make web pages interactive.

Whereas HTML and CSS provide structure and design to web pages, JavaScript provides interactive components that affect users. We'll go over each usage of the language in further depth below.

Programmers making interactive web pages using JavaScript, a text-based language used on both the client and server sides.

Employing interactive webpage elements

JavaScript was designed to produce and control dynamic website content, and this is now its major use. The great majority of developers use JS to add interactive elements to web sites.

These include dynamic forms, animated graphics, autocomplete recommendations, and picture slideshows. Over 90% of all websites, including Facebook, Netflix, LinkedIn, Uber, and PayPal, are powered by JavaScript.

JavaScript for mobile app development

Previously, you had to use languages such as Objective-C for iOS or Java for Android to develop mobile apps. Today, connecting to mobile APIs using JavaScript is easier than ever.

This implies you can create JavaScript-powered apps by utilizing mobile device functionalities such as the camera on an iPhone or iPad.

Mobile apps can be built for the Android and Apple platforms using JS frameworks such as React Native.

Server-side programming

Attempts were made but failed to make JavaScript run server-side in the beginning. Many people assumed it would never become a reliable backend language, until NodeJS arrived.

This JavaScript runtime is now a popular utility for powering web servers. With the introduction of frameworks such as NodeJS and ExpressJS, JavaScript became a popular choice for web server applications.

This implies that developers can use NodeJS to build JavaScript client-side and server-side code. It also allows you to create sophisticated web server apps with little money and effort.

JavaScript for web development

Developers continue to rely on JavaScript to create robust, interactive, and dynamic websites with rich user interfaces.

It is well-suited for web app development since it places a strong emphasis on UX/UI and design improvement. As a result, the interfaces are unique and easily accessible.

API integrations

Developers are embracing the notion of 'modularity', or the use of tools to do certain jobs in web development.

It allows developers to retrieve data from various sources and show it in their own application. Because of APIs and JavaScript, it is now simple to create this type of stack.

JavaScript Frameworks and Libraries

JavaScript is a programming language that promotes functional, event-driven, object-oriented, and prototype-based programming techniques.

It is the most widely used multi-paradigm programming language for web development and other high-performance computer applications.

Developer using JS frameworks as the fundamental building blocks for creating JavaScript applications.

Initially, JavaScript was utilized for client-side programming. It is now also used as a server-side scripting language. As a result, JavaScript has become the web's primary programming language.

JS frameworks provide developers with the fundamental building blocks for creating JavaScript applications. This prevents them from having to start from scratch by utilizing an operational base to get things started.

JavaScript frameworks serve as the base for a collection of JavaScript code libraries. The framework establishes the overall structure of the application.

The libraries compile code that isolates functionality for the type of app you're developing.

Let's have a look at the most popular JavaScript frameworks on the market.


Node.js is a cross-platform, open-source back-end JavaScript runtime environment that runs on the V8 engine and executes JavaScript code outside of a web browser.

It enables developers to create scalable server-side network applications.

Node.js uses nodes built on top of an existing system to create HTTP servers that offer content to web users. Features like event-driven and concurrent request processing makes Nodejs known for enabling robust performance and fast code execution.

The most popular JavaScript package manager is the Node.js Package Manager (NPM). This set of utilities automates the installation, upgrade, configuration, and removal of software from a computer's operating system.

NPM is popular among developers because it runs code from dependencies automatically and allows programmers to add permit packages on demand.

This enables for simple alterations and updates, as well as some code simplification.

Because of the event-based approach, programmers have greater independence and agility in implementing things from the ground up. Node.js can also be used by developers to create JavaScript apps on the server itself.

By far the most popular JavaScript framework utilized today is React. This framework employs functional programming techniques to greatly simplify parallel programming.

React is a free and open-source JavaScript front-end toolkit for creating user interfaces based on UI components. Meta and a community of individual developers and corporations maintain it.

React can be used as a foundation for developing single-page or mobile applications. It allows developers to reuse system components, which saves time and increases productivity.

It is also a Facebook-maintained open-source project.

React is a JavaScript library used to create user interfaces. It lets developers design user-friendly, visually appealing websites with speedier page load times. The separation of data and display layers, virtual DOM, and modular, reusable components are React's features.

These capabilities aid in the reduction of development time and the simplification of upgrading procedures. React can also be integrated with different frameworks since it is not linked to a single technological stack.

Vue is a free and open-source JavaScript model–view–viewmodel front end framework for creating user interfaces and single-page applications.

It is a popular lightweight framework with one of the industry's fastest-growing user populations. One of the reasons for its success is its ability to integrate with other frameworks and libraries, which allows developers to fuse pieces of the framework into other frameworks and libraries.

It also shortens the development cycle and minimizes the total quantity of code.

Vue is a web development framework that is meant to be more responsive to the demands of its developers. Using a script tag, programmers can simply incorporate the framework into an app.

The framework starts with a small set of functionalities and allows developers to add components until it fulfills their requirements.

Vue is a web development framework that focuses on speed and flexibility. It has a shorter learning curve than other frameworks since it employs HTML-based template syntax and minimal style.

Vue also supports numerous design principles and, like React, uses virtual DOM to enable rapid view updates in web apps. Browser dev tool extensions and code reuse make development easier and faster.

Angular is a free and open-source component-based web application framework based on TypeScript that consists of a set of well-integrated modules for developing scalable web apps.

Angular is a popular JavaScript framework that was created to make development and testing easier. This eliminates the need for developers to create additional code in order to execute test modules.

Instead, they can concentrate on making the code unit test-ready, which means it can be readily deployed and tested across a wide range of components.

This all-in-one framework is intended to make creating a web application as simple as possible. Routing, Typescript adoption, HTTP request processing, and a basic progressive web application are all included. It also contains all of the features that developers may require for a quick and efficient development process.

Angular is a web framework that shifts the responsibility of page creation to the browser, lowering server load and boosting page load times.

It was created by Google, which provides patches and updates on a regular basis. The most recent version of the framework also has extensive documentation, which makes learning it easy.

Angular distinguishes itself from other frameworks due to its architecture, which allows for the creation of sophisticated and powerful user interfaces.

It's TypeScript feature aids in the maintenance of clear and error-free code, particularly in enterprise-grade applications. Self-contained components can be reused across multiple portions of an application, making it easier to maintain the code.

jQuery is a free, open-source JavaScript toolkit designed to make traversing and manipulating the HTML DOM tree easier.

As of May 2019, it was utilized by 73% of the top ten million most popular websites. JQuery can also make event handling, CSS animation, and Ajax easier.

jQuery can be used to overcome many of the cross-browser compatibility concerns that plagued JavaScript in its early days. It does this by optimizing HTML scripting and pushing programmers to write simpler and shorter code.

jQuery is a powerful tool that enables developers to create beautiful websites without prior knowledge of user design.

It allows programmers to construct extremely dynamic web pages with a variety of effects and animations.

Ember.js is a free and open-source JavaScript web framework that employs the component-service design pattern. Developers can use it to build scalable single-page web apps.

It includes within the framework popular idioms, best practices, and patterns from existing single-app ecosystem designs.

Ember.js distributes the core functionality into three self-contained yet interconnected levels having a Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture. Ember.js provides parallel, asynchronous programming by abstracting the data model from the controller and display components.

This allows for simultaneous work on several aspects. As a result, software development is expedited and code maintenance is simplified.

Ember.js allows for two-way data binding. Any model adjustments are immediately reflected in the view, and vice versa. The framework provides its own command-line interface for quickly creating, building, and testing programs.

The uniform structure of Ember.js is a significant advantage, since it translates to more efficient development.

Express is a Node.js backend web application framework that is available as free and open-source software. It is intended for the development of a strong collection of functionality for web and mobile apps, as well as APIs.

It has been referred to as the de facto standard server framework for Node.js.

Express focuses on easy and productive web development as well as reducing code size. It can be used to control all parts of the backend, from routes to UI components.

The framework also provides a plethora of extensibility options via plug-ins.

Backbone.js is a JavaScript library that is built on the model–view–controller application architecture paradigm and has a RESTful JSON interface. It provides structure to web applications by offering models with key-value binding and custom events, as well as a large API collection.

Backbone.js is notable for its lightweight nature, since its sole hard dependency is on one JavaScript library, plus jQuery for full library use.

Backbone.js operates on the philosophy of providing the bare minimum of models, collections, and user interfaces while leaving the decision of extensions to the developer.

All server-side functionality must be given through the API, which is one of the distinguishing features of Backbone.js. This assists developers in reducing code and simplifying the delivery of complex web functions.

Backbone.js also has a clear, ordered structure that makes it easier to write elegant, legible code.

JavaScript Stack

JavaScript, which was originally used in frontend web development, can now be integrated into the server side, which has increased its popularity even further.

This event triggered a debate about whether JavaScript could be used in both the frontend and the backend. There were also doubts about whether JavaScript was adequate to develop a full web project.

This spawned a new generation of programmers known as full stack JavaScript developers.

Software developers refer to two independent stacks that encompass all of the layers that comprise the full technology stack of a specific application.

These stacks are for the client-facing side of software known as the frontend and the server-side known as the backend. As a result, many people believe that in order to design software successfully, you must address both stacks individually.

A full stack JavaScript developer can work on both the frontend and backend of an application. This implies they must not only understand HTML and CSS, but also be able to create a browser, a server, and a database.

To accomplish these tasks, they employ a variety of technologies that are built on top of one another. This is known as the MEAN stack, and it consists of the following components:

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A NoSQL database program.

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A frontend web framework.

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The de facto standard server framework for Node.js.

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A JavaScript runtime environment for server-side scripting.

All of these components are based on JavaScript, allowing developers to create applications entirely in the same language.

Full Stack JavaScript App Development

JavaScript is now at the forefront of web development on both the client and server sides.

It has established its own ecosystem of frameworks and libraries that are widely utilized in the software development industry. As a result, JavaScript is well-suited for every type of web development project.

JavaScript has become one of the most popular programming languages due to its vast library of frameworks. Isomorphic JavaScript is a form of JavaScript that can execute on both the frontend and the server.

A great feature of Universal JavaScript is that it works on all devices.

JavaScript being one of the web's most powerful and adaptable programming languages, enables you to add complicated features to web sites.

You can create robust cross-platform mobile, web, and desktop apps using multiple JavaScript app development frameworks and open-web standards.

Developers using JavaScript and its frameworks to build a web project

What Apps Use JavaScript?

Popular frontend frameworks for web development include ReactJS, Angular, and Vue.js. Node.js is a JavaScript runtime environment based on the JavaScript V8 engine in Google Chrome.

Many businesses utilize it to create web apps and web-enabled mobile devices. Here are some examples:


Facebook's development team utilized React Native to construct their current iOS and Android mobile applications.

Because both mobile applications were produced by the same development team using the same JavaScript language, they share common features and function in the same natural manner. The tool was intended to address the issue of user design.


Netflix chose Node.js after experiencing vertical scaling issues with their monolithic Java Virtual Machine (JVM)-based system.

The platform was chosen by the company because it avoided the need to create code twice and because of the framework's incredibly high speed.


LinkedIn chose Node.js to rebuild its main mobile services since other programming languages weren't up to snuff.

They achieved significantly improved speed, with the app operating up to 20 times quicker and greater integration between the frontend and backend. The choice yielded some amazing results.


Uber used Node.js in production to construct a huge system for matching drivers and riders. They said that Node.js allowed them to view and modify a program without having to restart it, even when it was in production.

Node.js is well-suited to distributed systems that make a large number of network queries in order to handle big volumes of data fast.


PayPal migrated all of its online apps away from Java and toward JavaScript and Node.js.

Developers were able to utilize 40% fewer files and write 33% fewer lines of code. They claimed that despite using fewer employees, the software was produced twice as quickly.

Future of JavaScript

In its early years, JavaScript was mostly used in browsers.

The scenario has changed since the many frameworks of this programming language are now extensively utilized in mobile apps, tablets, desktop software, and other applications.

The Internet of Things, which is anticipated to radically disrupt enterprises, has already begun to use JavaScript to interface with the web.

JavaScript has grown to become one of the world's most popular programming languages. Experts anticipate that better frameworks for Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality development will be available in JavaScript shortly.

The language is projected to retain its status in the future. JavaScript will be around for a long time.

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