Introduction of the .NET Framework
Microsoft announced in 2002 a single framework for developing apps in any programming language.
The framework provided a standardized API set, language independence, and compatibility with the underlying operating system and other non-.NET programs.
Despite the long-term goal of making .NET a cross-platform framework, the .NET Framework was exclusively available for Windows.
Introduction of the Mono Project
Microsoft released the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) standards.
This implies that the .NET Framework runtime and the C# programming language become open standards, allowing anybody to implement the .NET runtime and C# programming language.
This helped pave the path for the Mono Project to migrate .NET to Linux in 2007.
The Mono Project drew a lot of attention and resulted in a production-ready framework. However, because of some restrictive Windows constraints, not everything in the .NET Framework could be migrated to Mono.
Introduction of the .NET Compact Fr3mework and Xamarin
Microsoft also launched the .NET Compact Framework at the same time as the .NET Framework.
It was a scaled-down version of the .NET Framework intended to operate on devices with low computational power.
In order to have a more efficient version of the .NET Compact Framework that could also run on the hardware directly, Microsoft introduced the .NET Micro Framework in 2007.
Silverlight also introduced .NET to the browser, giving developers a foundation for creating sophisticated web applications the same year.
The MonoTouch project began in 2009. It tried to port to iOS and Android using the Mono framework, which is the Linux equivalent of the .NET Framework.
In 2013, the MonoTouch project served as the foundation for Xamarin, a platform for developing Android and iOS apps in the C# programming language.
The .NET Ecosystem expanded with the launches of the .NET Framework, the Mono Project, the .NET Compact Framework, and Xamarin, allowing the development of apps for Windows and Linux computers, embedded devices, the web, and iOS and Android mobile phones.
At this point, it can be said that Microsoft has fulfilled its cross-platform ambitions by utilizing several environments. However, the creation of applications in many environments became a challenge for library developers.
A .NET assembly can be loaded in any .NET runtime, but it can fail at any time if it calls an API that isn't supported by the platform it's running on. As a result, Microsoft's long-term goal of making .NET a cross-platform framework has yet to be realized.
Redesigning the .NET Ecosystem - I3troduction of the .NET Core
Microsoft began building .NET Core from the ground up in 2014 in order to fulfill the objective of a cross-platform development framework. It was initially made available in 2016.
The new framework was a total rewrite of the .NET standards with cross-platform compatibility in mind. Its runtime was compatible with Windows, Linux, and macOS.
Furthermore, unlike the .NET Framework, this new framework did not have backward compatibility limitations.
The .NET Basic framework was built with a modular architecture that supplied smaller copies of the framework's core components, allowing developers to download new components from the NuGet repository. As a consequence, deployment and portability were simplified.
Solving Potential Library De3elopment Issues - Introduction of the .NET Standard
Microsoft established the .NET Standard to solve possible library development issues with the introduction of .NET Core.
It is a formal definition of .NET APIs that must be implemented by different .NET systems. .NET API sets are defined differently in different .NET Standard versions.
A .NET implementation specifies which .NET Standard version it supports in this manner.
The library developer must provide the Target Framework Moniker (TFM) in the .NET project file to target that specific .NET Standard version.
A Unified .NET Ecosystem - Introdu3tion of the .NET 5
Microsoft released a new framework version that intends to unify the .NET platform in November 2020. This new version was called the .NET 5 framework.
.NET 5 does not require several implementations. It has a collection of APIs that are shared by Windows, Linux, Mac, iOS, and Android.
As a result, if your project is in .NET 5, your code will execute on all of those platforms. If you require the APIs of a certain platform, you should utilize a specific TFM.
.NET Standard is no longer required in .NET 5. .NET 5, on the other hand, is a working implementation rather than a formal specification.
.NET Notes to Remember32>
- The .NET Framework is still alive and operative. Its current version is 4.8, and it is the last version of the framework.
- The introduction of .NET 5 signals the end of the .NET Framework but does not replace it.
- .NET 5 does not replace .NET Standard.
- .NET 5 is the subsequent version of .NET Core 3.1.
- There is no .NET 4. Microsoft skipped this version to avoid confusion with .NET Framework 4.x.
- .NET will have no more Framework, Core, Compact, or Micro. It will have no other qualifier than just its version.
To build diverse types of applications, the.NET ecosystem offers a variety of tools, platforms, and programming languages. Each tool and programming language has the ability to make software development easier.
C# is a multi-paradigm, general-purpose programming language that is similar to C++ and Java. It was designed specifically for the .NET platform and is regarded as a strong option for developing any sort of application.
C# allows software developers to create sophisticated, yet flexible and scalable, applications.
C# programming disciplines include static typing, strong typing, lexically scoped, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented, and component-oriented programming.
Visual Basic.NET (VB.NET)
Visual Basic.NET (VB.NET) is a multi-paradigm, object-oriented programming language introduced in 2002 on the .NET platform. This was Microsoft's replacement to the original Visual Basic language.
VB.NET is not as well-known as C#, but its functionality is comparable to that of C# and Java.
The VB.NET programming language is used to create basic command-line tools, graphical user interfaces, gaming apps, and large-scale web applications.
ASP.NET is a free and open-source server-side web application framework for creating dynamic web pages. It was developed by Microsoft to help programmers build dynamic web pages, web apps, and web services.
It offers a wide range of programming paradigms, allowing for the creation of various online applications. The following are some widely used tools:
- ASP.NET WebForms
- ASP.NET MVC
- ASP.NET Web Pages
- ASP.NET Web API
Xamarin is an open-source platform that includes additional libraries and tools for developing cross-platform mobile apps with .NET. These programs are compatible with iOS, Android, macOS, and Windows, and their code may be shared across platforms.
Implementation of Xamarin with .NET allows developing efficient and robust apps with a native-like look and performance. The following functionalities make use of Xamarin and .NET:
- Extensible Markup Language (XAML)
- Type Checking
- Portable class libraries (PCL)
- Libraries for Model View ViewModel (MVVM) and Model View Controller (MVC)
- Libraries with APIs accesses
Windows Forms is a free and open-source graphical class library included with Microsoft .NET that provides a framework for developing rich client applications for desktop, laptop, and tablet PCs.
Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF)
Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is a free and open-source graphics subsystem created by Microsoft for the purpose of displaying user interfaces in Windows-based applications.
WPF offers a broader range of skins or themes for its programs and fully supports data binding for improved data synchronization across layouts and data sources.
ADO.NET is a Microsoft .NET data access technology that allows communication across relational and non-relational systems via a standard set of components.
ADO.NET is a collection of computer software components that can be used by programmers to retrieve data and data services from a database. This technology greatly automates and speeds up data retrieval and management operations.
Windows Communication Foundation (WCF)
The Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) is a free and open-source runtime as well as a collection of.NET APIs for developing connected, service-oriented applications.
WCF users can transfer data as asynchronous messages from one service endpoint to another, allowing a client to get access to a specific service.
.NET uses object-oriented programming (OOP) to divide software into smaller components that are easier to manage and combine.
.NET allows you to reuse code and components, saving time and money on development.
Visual Studio IDE
The Integrated Development Environment (IDE) enables programmers to simplify application development.
The Visual Studio IDE includes all of the tools required to create, test, and publish software for all platforms, including Android and iOS. Visual Studio is integrated with .NET and provides language-specific environment features.
Universal .NET Standard
The .NET ecosystem has been expanded with the addition of a huge class library known as .NET Standard. It is determined by the amount of base class libraries available for the .NET Framework, .NET Core, and Xamarin.
These are used to interface with common functions like graphics rendering, database interaction, and XML document processing.
.NET's caching mechanism is both powerful and simple to utilize. It is also intended to be expandable.
The Object Cache class enables developers to design their own cache implementation for use in enhancing the speed and scalability of Windows client and server applications.
If you write in C# or Visual Basic, your code will execute on all supported operating systems. This allows businesses to reach out to multiple platforms while remaining inside the.NET ecosystem.
Roslyn and RyuJIT are two compilers used in .NET. Roslyn is used to compile C# or VB code into CIL (common intermediate language), while RyuJIT is used to execute just-in-time compilation of CIL into native code.
Roslyn exposes APIs to provide developers with comprehensive code analysis. This implies that, unlike traditional black-box compilation, developers may see the compilation data at any step using Roslyn.
CIL is compiled to bytecode using RyuJIT. In .NET 5, several enhancements to RyuJIT were introduced to improve the quality of the machine code generated.
.NET has a sizable development community. Almost any problem can be handled with the aid of other members of the community, and it can also act as a platform for idea exchange.
Automatic monitoring in ASP.NET
Automatic monitoring is incorporated into ASP.NET. The web pages and programs that operate on the Windows Web Server are closely monitored.
Monitoring guarantees that .NET programs are more stable and transparent.
.NET programs can be deployed as part of your existing software or as a standalone installation. The modular design incorporates all of the required dependencies.
Active Microsoft Support
Microsoft is constantly evolving and developing their .NET platform technologies.
The switch to .NET Core was a significant step forward in the ecosystem's growth since it allows for cross-platform application development while also focusing on performance improvements.
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